Trading Strategy – VWAP Mean Reversion

This strategy is going to use the volume weighted average price (VWAP) as an indicator to trade mean version back to VWAP. Annualized Sharpe Ratio (Rf=0%) is 0.9016936.

This post is a response to where there was a bug in the code indicating that VWAP wasn’t reverting (this didn’t sit well with me, or some of the people who commented). As always don’t take my word for anything, backtest the strategy yourself. One of the dangers of using R or Matlab is that it’s easy for forward bias to slip into your code. There are libraries such as Quantstrat for R which protect against this, but I’ve found them terribly slow to run.

Trade logic:

  • All conditions are checked at the close, and the trade held for one day from the close
  • If price/vwap > uLim go short
  • If price/vwap < lLim go long

Onto the code:

?View Code RSPLUS
#Trade logic - Look for mean reversion
#If price/vwap > uLim go SHORT
#If price/vwap < lLim go LONG
#Script parameters
symbol <- "^GSPC"     #Symbol
nlookback <- 3 #Number of days to lookback and calculate vwap
uLim <- 1.001  #If price/vwap > uLim enter a short trade
lLim <- 0.999  #If price/vwap < lLim enter a long trade
#Specify dates for downloading data
startDate = as.Date("2006-01-01") #Specify what date to get the prices from
symbolData <- new.env() #Make a new environment for quantmod to store data in
getSymbols(symbol, env = symbolData, src = "yahoo", from = startDate)
mktdata <- eval(parse(text=paste("symbolData$",sub("^","",symbol,fixed=TRUE))))
mktdata <- head(mktdata,-1) #Hack to fix some stupid duplicate date problem with yahoo
#Calculate volume weighted average price
vwap <- VWAP(Cl(mktdata), Vo(mktdata), n=nlookback)
#Can calculate vwap like this, but it is slower
#vwap <- runSum(Cl(mktdata)*Vo(mktdata),nlookback)/runSum(Vo(mktdata),nlookback)
#Calulate the daily returns
dailyRet <- Delt(Cl(mktdata),k=1,type="arithmetic") #Daily Returns
#signal = price/vwap
signal <- Cl(mktdata) / vwap
signal[] <- 1 #Setting to one means that no trade will occur for NA's
#Stripping NA's caused all manner of problems in a previous post
trade <- apply(signal,1, function(x) {if(x<lLim) { return (1) } else { if(x>uLim) { return(-1) } else { return (0) }}})
#Calculate the P&L
#The daily ret is DailyRet(T)=(Close(T)-Close(T-1))/Close(T-1)
#We enter the trade on day T so need the DailyRet(T+1) as our potential profit
#Hence the lag in the line below
strategyReturns <- trade * lag(dailyRet,-1)
strategyReturns <- na.omit(strategyReturns)
#### Performance Analysis ###
#Calculate returns for the index
indexRet <- dailyRet #Daily returns
colnames(indexRet) <- "IndexRet"
zooTradeVec <- cbind(as.zoo(strategyReturns),as.zoo(indexRet)) #Convert to zoo object
colnames(zooTradeVec) <- c(paste(symbol," VWAP Trade"),symbol)
zooTradeVec <- na.omit(zooTradeVec)
#Lets see how all the strategies faired against the index
charts.PerformanceSummary(zooTradeVec,main=paste("Performance of ", symbol, " VWAP Strategy"),geometric=FALSE)
#Lets calculate a table of montly returns by year and strategy
cat("Calander Returns - Note 13.5 means a return of 13.5%\n")
#Calculate the sharpe ratio
cat("Sharpe Ratio")
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